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Thursday, 8 March 2018

Indian Paintings notes:or IAS UPSC SSC PCS States level other Exams

Rajput painting

  • shows a number of themes and different events of epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, Krishna’s life
  • However  mostly paintings were done on the walls of palaces, inner chambers of the forts,
  • colors were extracted from certain minerals, plant sources, conch shells, and were even derived by processing precious stones
  • emerged from Persian miniature painting

Saranatha pillar

  • lion capital = national emblem
  • four lions are seated back to back
  • UP:
    • column = same place
    • lion capital = sarnatha museum
  • @ ashoka column
  • ashoka chakra = indian flag

Gopurum

  • monumental tower, entrance, southern india
  • pallavas
  • shrine has more than one
  • tamil meaning = king and exterior
  • urban nodes and focal points

Vijayanagara art

  • religious, courtly and civic
  • comb = hoysala, pandya, chola
  • granite, sandstone and plaster

Bundi School Of Painting

Indian Art Architecture Bundi school
  • major cultural hubs found in Bundi, of Rajasthan states.
  • Mewar School, the School of Painting
  • uman figures have a unique expression
  • red-brown color

Sunga art


  • stupas at sanchi
  • expansion of mathura school
  • sculpture not in bold relief
  • male/female large ornaments
  • no emotions
  • eyeballas conspicuous

Kangra school of painting


  • Kangra, Himachal Pradesh
  • @ Pahari painting school
  • greenery
  • naturalistic
  • plants and creepers, leafless trees
  • colors made of vegetable and mineral extract

Manjusha Art

  • Manjushas are temple-shaped boxes
  • ade of bamboo,jute and paper
  • Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, and Tarai area of the Nepal
  • Manjusha Art is one of the oldest art and having great historical importance.

Madhubani Art

  • Mithila painting
  • region of Bihar state
  • using natural dyes and pigment
  • paintings for types of rituals such as birth, marriage, holi
  • aditionally by the women of villages
  • paste of powdered rice
  • mostly depict nature and Hindu religious motifs

Kishangarh school of painting


  • elongation of human faces
  • Portrayal of Radha and Krishna
  • Bani Thani.
  • labeled as India’s “Mona Lisa”

Rock-cut temple

  • mostly religious in nature
  • suited to their natural inclinations
  • A rock cut temple is carved from a big rock.
  • ellora, kailash

Mathura school of art

  • ancient
  • kushanas
  • city of mathura
  • hinduism, jainism and buddhism
  • first Buddha images
  • Sarnath, Sravasti Rajgir
  • school excelled in Yaksha (Male)
  • lion throne Indian dresses

Chola architecture


  • tamil dynasty
  • famous for tamil lit + art and archi
  • Pallava style
  • sanctum = square + circular
  • stone and metal scrip
  • gopurams

Kulu School

  • style of painting

Chaitya

  • buddhist or jain shrine including a stupa
  • holding devotees
  • providing shelter
  • roman = column + arch
  • ajanta, ellora

Nagara style of architecture


  • hindu temple archi
  • elevation convex curve
  • plan square shape
  • projections of plan are carried to top

Chandella School Of Arch

  • diff from other dynasties
  • contemporary : khajuraho temple and lakes

Dravadian Architecture

  • southern part
  • developed for about 10 centuries
  • Chola domination was like a golden age for Dravidian.
  • Northeastern side Sri Lanka, Maldives, and various other parts of Southeast Asia
  • Vimanam, Mandapams,Gopurams

Mughal painting

  • emerged from Persian miniature painting
  • blending of Persian and Indian ideas
  • greater interest in realistic portraiture
  • Animals and plants were also more realistically shown

Mughal Architecture

  • at fatehpur sikri.
  • islamic, hindu and jain
  • Sikri sandstone
  • Buland Darwaza, jama masjid, Tomb of Salim Chishti, panch mahal

Effect Of Islamic Rulers on India Architecture

  • use of shapes (instead of natural forms)
  • decorative lettering or calligraphy
  • inlay decoration and use of coloured marble
  • concept of arch or dome was not invented by the Muslims
  • borrowed architectural styles of the post-Roman period
  • put to use certain scientific and mechanical formulae
  • were typical mortar-masonry works formed of dressed stones
  • religious=Mosques and Tombs
  • secular=palaces and forts
  • masjid
    • open courtyard surrounded by a pillared verandah
    • crowned off with a dome
    • mihrab used as a indicator of direction of the qibla for prayer
  • tomb
    • Maqbara refers to the graves, it refers to the graves (Raula or Rauza) of religious figures or Waliyullahs.
    • qabr = normal muslim person
    • dargah = In Asian countries, maqbara also refers to the Dargah of Waliyullahs, Sufis, Sheikhs, Imams
  • three sections
    1. delhi or imperial
    2. provincial
      1. jaunpur
      2. deccan
    3. mughal

HINDUSTAN MUSIC

  • north india
  • persian influence
  • khyal =modern
  • dhrupad = oldest, still in use

Carnatic music

  • one of the two major systems
  • melody based not harmony
  • gives equal importance to melody and rhythm
  • fine blend of science and art
  • concerts are generally solo or duet

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